Handbook of Psychopathy: Chapter 21: Psychopathy in Women

Chapter 21: Psychopathy in Women

Axis I Disorders
Date: 1/26/2013
Keywords: Axis I Disorders, Dissociative Disorders, Eating Disorders,
Mood Disorders, Psychotic Disorders, Substance Use Disorders

• Anxiety Disorders(e.g.,panic disorder, social anxiety disorder,posttraumatic stress disorder)
• Mood Disorders (e.g., major depression, bipolar disorder)
• Eating Disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa)
• Psychotic Disorders
• Dissociative Disorders
• Substance Use Disorders

Personality disorders (e.g., borderline personality disorder) are not
included on Axis I. Instead, they are considered Axis II disorders.
From: http://ptsd.about.com/od/glossary/g/Axis-I-Disorders.htm

Axis II Disorders
Date: 1/26/2013
Keywords: Antisocial Personality Disorder, Avoidant Personality
Disorder, Axis II Disorders, Borderline Personality Disorder,
Dependent Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder,
Mental Retardation, Narcissistic Personality Disorder,
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, Paranoid Personality
Disorder, Personality Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, Schizoid
Personality Disorder, Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Axis II is for assessing personality disorders and intellectual
disabilities. These disorders are usually life-long problems that
first arise in childhood, distinct from the clinical disorders of Axis
I which are often symptomatic of Axis II. For example, a adult patient
might have depression (an Axis I disorder) that is largely a result of
a paranoid personality disorder (an Axis II disorder). Axis II
disorders are regarded as more permanent and less responsive to
treatment.
A list of Axis II:

• Antisocial Personality Disorder
• Avoidant Personality Disorder
• Borderline Personality Disorder
• Dependent Personality Disorder
• Histrionic Personality Disorder
• Mental Retardation
• Narcissistic Personality Disorder
• Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
• Paranoid Personality Disorder
• Personality Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
• Schizoid Personality Disorder
• Schizotypal Personality Disorder
From: http://www.psyweb.com/DSM_IV/jsp/Axis_II.jsp

Behavioral Correlates !: Males = PCL-R & Youth Version (PCL:YV) &
behavioral criterion
Date: 1/19/2013
Keywords: alcoholism, behavioral criterion measures, criminal behavior
, Males = PCL-R & Youth Version (PCL:YV), poor institutional
adjustment, poor treatment response, recidivism
Studies with male samples have consistently revealed significant
relations between PCL-R and the Youth Version (PCL:YV) scores and a
variety of behavioral criterion measures, including poor treatment
response, criminal behavior, poor institutional adjustment, alcoholism
and recidivism (Catchpole & Gretton, 2003; Dolan & Doyle, 2000; Hare,
1999; Hemphill, Templeman, Hare & Wong, 1998; Ogloff, Wong &
Greenwood, 1990; Walters, 2003)p. 421.

Behavioral Correlates !I: PCL-R high scores = poor treatment response
Date: 1/19/2013
Keywords: PCL-R high scores, poor treatment response, urine-analysis
avoidance, violent rule violations
In a sample of female offenders, Salekin et al. (1997) reported a
nonsignificant relation between PCL-R scores and the treatment
rejection scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 1991).
This finding runs counter to suggestions that psychopathic individuals
may not benefit from treatment, and it raises the possibility of
gender differences in treatment. But, a distinction must be made
between self-reported treatment motivations and actual treatment
compliance. In their sample of 404 female substance abusers,
Richards, Casey & Lucente (2003) found that high PCL-R assisted
psychopathy predicted poor treatment response, including
noncompliance, poor attendance, violent rule violations, and avoidance
of urine-analysis testing.
p. 421.

Behavioral Correlates !II: PCL-R high scores in women
Date: 1/19/2013
Keywords: convictions for violent & nonviolent offenses, high levels:
prior violent & nonviolent behavior, PCL-R high scores in women
Research on the association between psychopathy and future violence in
women has been similarly equivocal. On the one hand, higher PCL-R
scores have been reliably associated with high levels of prior violent
and nonviolent criminal behavior in females, and with greater numbers
of prior convictions for violent and nonviolent offenses (Strachan,
1993; Vitale et al., 2002), prior arrests (Rutherford et al., 1996;
Weiler & Widom, 1996; Weiler & Widom, 1996).
p. 421-422.

Behavioral Correlates !V: PCL-R 30 female scores moderate to poor V
males
Date: 1/20/2013
Keywords: F1 & F2 & male recidivism, F1 & Female recidivism, female
psychopath reclassification, male F1 & F2 = recidivism, PCL-R 30
female scores moderate to poor, psychopaths & recidivism in female
sample
P. 422.

In one of the studies of psychopaths and recidivism in a female
sample, Salekin, Rogers, Ustad and Sewell (1998) concluded that when
inmates were classified as psychopathic on the basis of a cut score of
30 on the PCL-R, the classification accuracy of the PCL-R was
“moderate to poor,” with 90% of the women who recidivated being
classified to nonpsychopathic, and 9% of the non-recidivators
classified as psychopathic. In prior male samples, both F1 & F2 were
found to be significantly associated with recidivism. Salekin et al.
(1997) female samples only F1 showed a significant association with
recidivism. Consistent with these weaker associations with future
violence (1997) reported no significant associations between PCL-R
scores and CO ratings of female offenders’ subsequent behavior, verbal
aggression, and noncompliance in the prison institution.
p. 422.

Diagnostic Comorbidity I: incarcerated women = higher rates of Axis I
psychopathology
Date: 1/22/2013
Keywords: incarcerated women =f Axis I psychopathology, incarcerated
women V community women, incarcerated women V incarcerated men
Most studies have confirmed that incarcerated women experience higher
rates of Axis I psychopathology (Axis I: All diagnostic categories
except mental retardation and personality disorder) compared to
matched community women (Jordan, Schlenger, Fairbank & Cadell, 1996);
Teplin, Abram & McClelland, 1996) and incarcerated men (Teplin, Abram,
McClelland, Dulcan & Mericle, 2002).
p. 422.

Diagnostic Comorbidity II: personality disorders in female offenders
samples lower than men
Date: 1/24/2013
Keywords: APD levels in female inmate samples, borderline personality
disorder (BPD), personality disorders in female offenders samples
In studies that have examined rates of various personality disorders
in female offenders samples, incarcerated women show lower rates of
APD than male prisoners, and may be be more likely than men in prison
to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). For
example, Hurley & Dunne (1991) reported approximately equal of APD and
BPD (17-20%) among a sample of female Australian prisoners.
P. 422.

Diagnostic Comorbidity III: BPD most prevalent Axis II in female
felons
Date: 1/24/2013
Keywords: APD in female jail inmates, Axis II, borderline personality
disorder (BPD), BPD, BPD most prevalent Axis II in female felons
Jordan et al. (1996) found that BPD was the most prevalent Axis II (A
dimension used with DSM-IV, which includes personality disorders:
paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic,
narcissistic, dependent, obsessive-compulsive, personality “NOS” and
mental retardation) (2-year prevalence of 28%) among North Carolina
female felons, and the lifetime prevalence rate for APD was nearly 12%
in this prison sample, which is similar to the rate of APD reported by
Teplin et al. (1996) among female jail inmates.
p. 422.

Diagnostic Comorbidity IV: No significant relationship in PCL-R &
other tests
Date: 1/24/2013
Keywords: Beck Depression Inventory, PCL-R No significant relationship
in & other tests, Symptom Checklist-90-R
vitale et al. (2002) examined correlates of psychopathy in a large
sample of females inmates and failed to find significant relationships
between total scores on the PCL-R and and scores on the Beck
Depression Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-90-R global
functioning index.
p. 422.

Diagnostic Comorbidity IX: incarcerated women show higher Axis 1 than
males
Date: 1/26/2013
Keywords: incarcerated females = lower rates of APD than men,
incarcerated females: high rates of BPD, incarcerated women show
higher Axis 1 than males

In summary, women with criminal histories (i.e., who are incarcerated)
tend to experience a larger range of Axis I symptoms and disorders
than do male counterparts (incarcerated males), are diagnosed most
often with BPD, and show rates of APD (10-20%) that for the most part
are lower that that reported in male prisoners (40-60%; see Hare,
1991; Widiger et al., 1996).
p. 423.

Diagnostic Comorbidity V: PCL-R high score = APD w/male methadone
patients
Date: 1/24/2013
Keywords: Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule – Revised,
methadone patients, PCL-R high score = APD
Piotrowski, Tusel, Sees, Banys & Hall (1995) reported that high PCL-R
scores were associated with an APD diagnosis, according to the
Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule – Revised, among male but
not female methadone patients.
p. 422.

Diagnostic Comorbidity VI: F1 & F2 in women V men

Date: 1/24/2013
Keywords: Cluster B personality disorder, extraversion, F1 & F2 in
women V men, primary psychopathy = social potency & extraversion,
social potency
Warren et al. (2003) reported that F2 of the PCL-R was significantly
correlated with all Cluster B personality disorder (APD, BPD,
histrionic and narcisstic personality) and paranoid personality
disorder in their sample of female prisoners. The F1
(interpersonal-affective disorder) was negatively related to avoidant
personality disorder, consistent with the idea that primary
psychopathy involves tendencies toward social potency and extraversion
in women as well as men (Patrick, 1995).
p. 422-423.

Diagnostic Comorbidity VII: F1 & F2 comorbidity similar in men & women
Date: 1/25/2013
Keywords: F1 & F2 in men and women, F1 negatively related to suicide
in women & women, F1 not significantly related to drug abuse, F1
weakly associated w/alcohol abuse in females, F2 & suicide risk in men
& women, F2 positively associated with alcohol & drug abuse

Research has shown positive relationships between PCL-R F2 and suicide
risk in both men and women, whereas F1 is unrelated in man and
negatively related to suicide attempts in women (Verona et al., 2001;
Verona, Hicks & Patrick, in press). Also, consistent with prior
findings in men (see Taylor & Lang, Ch. 25: Psychopathy & Substance
Use Disorders), O’Connor (2001) reported that whereas F2 was robustly
and positively associated with with both alcohol and drug abuse, F1
was not significantly related to drug abuse and was only weakly
associated with alcohol abuse in female prisoners. These studies
indicate that, for the most part, the types of disorders that show
comorbidity with psychopathy are similar for men and women.
p. 423.

Diagnostic Comorbidity VIII: F1 & F2 psychopathology different in men
V women
Date: 1/25/2013
Keywords: externalizing syndromes, F1 & F2 psychopathology in men V
women, F1 genetic correlations in men V women, F2 genetic correlations
in men V women, internalizing syndromes, psychopathy in women V men
Recent work has demonstrated differential relationships between
psychopathy and comorbid psychopathology in men and women (Blonigen,
Hicks, Kruger, Patrick and Iacono (2005) examined etiological
associations between facets of psychopathy and broad spectra of
psychopathology (internalizing, externalizing) in a large sample of
adolescent twins from the community. They reported that traits
related to F1 showed a positive genetic correlation with externalizing
syndromes in male but not females, whereas F2 related traits showed a
positive genetic correlation with internalizing syndromes in females
but not males. This study provides preliminary evidence that genetic
liabilities associated with different elements of the psychopathy
construct may confer risk for different forms of psychopathy in women
V men.
p. 423.

Diagnostic Comorbidity X: APD, BPD & histrionic personality
Date: 1/26/2013
Keywords: APD, BPD, Cluster B personality disorders, comorbidity in
women, histrionic personality
In summary, patterns of comorbidity associated with psychopathy per
se, in women appear similar in many ways to those for men. The DSM
disorders that co-occur most often with psychopathy in women are APD
and other Cluster B personality disorders including BPD and histrionic
personality, and this association in particularly marked for PCL-R F2.
p. 423.

Diagnostic Comorbidity XI: psychopathy in women – stronger links to
mood-anxiety symptoms
Date: 1/26/2013
Keywords: F1 = negative association internalizing psychopathology, F2
& Axis 1 mood-anxiety symptoms in women, stronger links to
mood-anxiety symptoms
In summary, the affective-interpersonal factor (F1) shows a negative
association with internalizing psychopathology and suicidal behavior
in women. Also, the findings of recent genetic study (Blonigen et
al., 2005) provide some evidence that underlying dispositions toward
psychopathy may be expressed differently in women than in men, with
stronger links between F2 and Axis 1 mood-anxiety symptoms in women
than men.
p, 423.

Early Work on Psychopathic Females I
Date: 12/31/2012
Keywords: antithetical to female female, The Mask of Insanity,
violations of female role expectations
In Cleckley’s “The Mask of Insanity,” 1976, Roberta, a female
psychopath, highlights potential differences in how judgements of
psychopathy are made on women VS men, as well as distinctions between
between female and male expressions of psychopathic traits. 1) the
primary traits are antithetical to female female socialization more so
than male socialization, and for this reason: the kinds of traits
exhibited by Roberta may seem more stricking to observers who expect a
woman to be nurturant, selfless and emotional. 2) the contexts in
which these psychopathic woman displayed these traits – w/in the home
and in their relationships – differenced from the more public arenas
(i.e., pubs, gambling houses, business and military) in which
Cleckley’s psychopathic men wrecked havoc. In essence, Cleckley’s
female clientele exhibited similar personality traits to male
psychopaths, but these traits were manifested more typically as
violations of female role expectations.
pp. 416-417.

Early Work on Psychopathic Females II
Date: 1/2/2013
Keywords: female criminality-violence NOT psychopathy, female forms of
AB
Since Cleckley, few researchers have investigated female forms of AB
behavior, and until recently, most of this research focused on general
criminality and violence rather than on psychopathy (e.g.,
Hoffman-Bustamante, 1973).
p. 412.

Early Work on Psychopathic Females III: A: 4 offender subtypes
Date: 1/2/2013
Keywords: Cleckley (1976), Four female offender subtypes, hyper-normal
scores, normal criminal type, over controlled type, psychopathic or
under controlled type, secondary or neurotic psychopathy type, Widom
(1978)

An exception to the dearth of female psychopathic studies: Widom
(1978) was interested in testing whether certain female prisoners
would fit the profile of the psychopaths as described by Cleckley
(1976). Based on a cluster analysis of personality measures, she
identified four offender subtypes in her sample of female inmates: 1)
a psychopathic or under controlled type, exhibiting hostility and
aggression, extensive criminal histories, and relatively low score of
anxiety; 2) a secondary or neurotic psychopathy type, exhibiting high
impulsivity and high levels of anxiety, depression and other
maladjustment; 3) an over controlled type (Megargee, 1966), with
hyper-normal scores on hostility and anxiety, higher psychological
defensiveness and fewer previous convictions; and 4) a “normal”
criminal type, scoring in the middle range on most personality tests,
with a peak in hostility.
p. 417.

Early Work on Psychopathic Females IV: B: 4 offender subtypes
Date: 1/3/2013
Keywords: fouyr offender subtypes = male-famale samples, hyper-normal
scores, over controlled types = female samples, Widom (1978)
Widom’s (1978) offender groups, which have been identified to some
extent in other female samples (Butler & Adams, 1966; Verona &
Carbonnell, 2000), resembled subtypes previously found in male
delinquent samples (Megargee, 1966). From these data Widom concluded
that similar subtypes including a psychopathic group, were present in
female and male samples, whereas over controlled offenders –
hyper-normal scores on hostility and anxiety, higher psychological
defensiveness and fewer previous convictions – are more prevalent in
female samples (Verona & Carbonnell, 2000; Widom, 1978).
p. 417.

Early Work on Psychopathic Females V: B: 4 offender subtypes
limitations

Date: 1/3/2013
Keywords: AB deviance emphasized, affective-interpersonal features
downplayed, Widom (1978)
A limitation of Widom’s 1976 study is that the indices of psychopathy
used in this study reflected primarily the AB deviance aspects of the
disorder as opposed to the affective-interpersonal features that have
been emphasized in contemporary research.
p. 417.

Factor Structure I: 3- & 4-Factor Models best
Date: 1/12/2013
Keywords: Three- & Four-Factor Models best, Warren et al., 2003
The inconsistency in factor structures across gender could reflect
limitations of the original 2-factor model. Warren et al. (2003)
conducted a detailed examination of the goodness of the fit of the
2-factor model, Cooke & Michie (2001) the 3-factor model, and Hare
(2003) the 4-factor model in their sample of 128 female inmates.
Results indicated that the best fit was achieved using the 3-factor
model; both the 3-factor and the 4-factor models represented better
fits than the 2-factor model (Warren et al., 2003).
p. 419.

Factor Structure II: 3-Factor Model across gender

Date: 1/12/2013
Keywords: Three Factor Model across gender
A test of the Coke & Michie (2001) 3-Factor solution using the PCL-SV
in a 425 female sample provided support for the generality of the
factor structure of this psychopathy measure across gender.
p. 419

Factor Structure III: 3-factor model best across gender
Date: 1/12/2013
Keywords: Cook & Michie 3-factor model, Skeem et al., 2003,
three-factor model best across gender
Skeem, Mulvey and Grisso (2003) compared the original 2-factor model
with the Cook & Michie 3-factor model in a sample of 870 psychiatric
patients. In addition to concluding that the 3-factor model
represented a better description of the PCL-SV than the original
2-factor model, the authors noted that the fit of the 3-factor model
to the data was not reduced when factor loadings for items and the
covariance among the 3-factor were constrained to be equal across
gender (Skeem et al., 2003).
p. 419.

Factor Structure IV: inconsistent findings across gender
Date: 1/21/2013
Keywords: antisocial & aggressive behavior across gender, early
childhood & adolescence, inconsistent findings across gender,
psychopathy & criminal & violent behavior, violent & aggressive
behavior
The inconsistent findings across gender regarding the relation between
psychopathy and criminal and violent behavior may reflect broader
inconsistencies in the development of antisocial and aggressive
behavior across gender. Conceptualizations and assessments of
psychopathy often include a focus on violent and aggressive behavior
and place particular emphasis on the presence of such behaviors in
early childhood and adolescence.
p. 422.

Factor Structure IV: PCL-R validity questions across genders
Date: 1/13/2013
Keywords: differential item functioning (DIF), Item Response Theory
(IRT), PCL-R in female samples, PCL-R validity questions across
genders
Bolt, Hare, Vitale & Newman (2004) investigated the functioning of the
PCL-R in female samples using Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis of
differential item functioning (DIF). A detailed review of the
application of IRT analysis can be found elsewhere (see Hare & Newman,
Chapter 4: The PCL Assessment of Psychopathy: Development, Structural
Properties & New Directions). Briefly, IRT analysis examine the
relationship between levels of the latent trait presumed to underlie a
test instrument and the scores obtained on the individual items.
When differences in this relationship occur across samples, the item
is said to exhibit DIF. If a large proportion of items display
substantial DIF, the validity of the instrument may be called into
question across the groups being compared.
p. 420.

Factor Structure V: PCL-R item functioning differences for femal
samples
Date: 1/14/2013
Keywords: DIF (differential item functioning), differential item
functioning, item functioning, PCL-R item functioning differences
Analyses of the PCL-R item scores of females V males have
demonstrated the presence of DIF (differential item functioning) for a
number of items (Bolt, Hare, Vitale & Newman, 2004). The largest
differences in item functioning were found for the following items:
conning/manipulative, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency
and criminal venality. Thus, when the PCL-R is used with female
samples, there may be some differences in item functioning,
particularly for items tapping antisocial or criminal behavior.
p. 420.

Factor Structure VI: DIF independent of directionality
Date: 1/14/2013
Keywords: DIF (differential item functioning), DIF independent of
directionality, differential item functioning, negative DIF, positive
DIF
DIF (differential item functioning) is independent of directionality,
and thus differences in item functioning can reflect both higher
(positive DIF) and lower (negative DIF) scores for a comparison
relative to a reference group. If the number of individual items
demonstration +DIF and the number of items that are -DIF is roughly
equivalent, then the total effect of DIF on the Full-Scale scores will
be minimal (Bolt et al., 2004).
p. 420.

Factor Structure VII: female & male PCL-R differences minimal
Date: 1/15/2013
Keywords: IRT, Item Response Theory (IRT), PCL-R female & male
differences minimal
In sum, the results of IRT (Item Response Theory) suggest that there
is some differences in the item and test functioning of the PCL-R
between males and females. However, given that these differences are
relatively small and the effects of these differences on total PCL-R
score are likely to be minimal, the authors (Edelyn Verona, Jennifer
Vitale) argue that these results support PCL-R scalar equivalence
across gender.
p. 420.

Factor Structure V: baserates of psychopathy across gender
Date: 1/21/2013
Keywords: baserates of psychopathy across gender, Gender differences
types of aggression, less powerful prediction of violence in female
samples
Gender differences in the development of aggression across childhood
and adolescence (e.g., Silverthorn & Frick, 1999) and in the types of
aggression exhibited by girls and boys (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995) may
contribute to differences in the baserates of psychopathy across
gender as well as the construct’s apparently less powerful prediction
of violence in female than in male samples.
p. 422.

Gender Differences in Externalizing Traits & Syndromes I
Date: 12/28/2012
Keywords: epidemiological data, externalizing psychopathology,
internalizing symptomatology
Psychiatric epidemiological data confirm a heightened tendency for
women to experience internalizing symptomatology (depression, anxiety)
in relation to men, whereas men are more likely than women to present
with externalizing psychopathology, including substance
abuse/dependence, antisocial personality, and aggression (Kessler et
al., 1994; Robins & Regier, 1991).
p. 415

Gender Differences in Externalizing Traits & Syndromes II
Date: 12/28/2012
Keywords: cognitive & biological differences, gender differences,
social sanctions
Some have suggested that social sanctions against reporting feelings
and attitudes that have been traditionally associated with the
opposite sex, as well as sex biases in diagnoses by clinicians, may
explain these differences (Ford & Widiger, 1989). Others have
suggested that gender differences in base rates for certain diagnoses
are due to meaningful underlying cognitive (e.g., rumination) and
biological (e.g., sex hormones) differences between the genders
(Hankin & Abramson, 2001; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1990; Widiger & Spitzer,
1991).
pp. 415-416.

Gender Differences in Externalizing Traits & Syndromes III
Date: 12/30/2012
Keywords: facial reactivity greater than men, intense negative
emotions, = fear
Research has indicated that men and women may differ in evolutionarily
influenced action tendencies involving activation and withdrawal. For
example, women tend to report more intense negative emotions,
particularly fear, and exhibit greater facial reactivity when exposed
to aversive stimuli relative to men (Bradley, Codispoti, Sabatinelli &
Lang, 2001; Tobin, Graziano, Vanman & Tassinary, 2000).
p. 416

Gender Differences in Externalizing Traits & Syndromes IV
Date: 12/30/2012
Keywords: men = anxiety less to threats, men = more anger arousal, men
= more arousal to pleasant images
Men are less likely than women to report anxiety in response to
threatening situations (Carver & White, 1994), and they report more
positive emotions and exhibit greater physiological arousal in
response to pleasant images (Bradley et al., 2001). Men also report
more frequent experiences of anger, a negatively valenced but
activating emotion (cf., Harmon-Jones & Allen, 1998), than women or
girls (Fabes & Eisenberg, 1992).
p. 416.

Gender Differences in Externalizing Traits & Syndromes V
Date: 12/30/2012
Keywords: baby boys = more activity, baby boys = more impulsivity,
baby girls = behavioral inhibition, baby girls = stress reactivity
Developmental researchers have reported that boys tend to exhibit
higher activity levels and more impulsivity during infancy, whereas
girls show more stress reactivity and behavioral inhibition (Garstein
& Rothbart, 2003; Sooyeon, Brody & Murray, 2003).
p. 416.

Gender Differences in Externalizing Traits & Syndromes VI
Date: 12/31/2012
Keywords: empathy in girls VS boys, girls = behavioral inhibition
strategies, girls = earlier cognitive adaptive skills, language
social-emotional skills

Developmental psychologists have speculated that emerging differences
in aggression can arise from parental socialization practices that
encourage internalization and prosocial expressions of affect (e.g.,
empathy in girls versus boys; See Keenan & Shaw, 1997). There is
evidence that girls show earlier development of cognitive adaptive
skills, including in language social-emotional skills, than boys
(Keenan &n Shaw, 1997). These cognitive skills relate to the
development of more efficient behavioral inhibition strategies in
girls relative to boys.
p. 416.

Gender Differences: Development of Psychopathy I: early-onset Boy CD V
no childhood history of CD
Date: 1/31/2013
Keywords: callous-unemotional, CD early onset, CD early onset =
psychopathy, childhood history of CD lacking, criminal diversity
greater, CU (callous-unemotional), early-onset CD, impulse control
poor

Examinations of AB in males have reliably identified 2-developmental
pathways. Specifically, antisocial adolescent boys with a history of
early-onset CD differ from AB boys with no childhood history of CD in
that the former exhibit higher levels of CU (callous-unemotional)
personality traits, greater diversity of criminal behaviors, poorer
impulse control (Moffitt, 2003; see also Frick & Marsee, Chapter 18:
Psychopathy & Development Pathways to AB in Youth). Early-onset cases
are also more likely to be labeled psychopaths in adult (Lahey &
Loeber, 1994; Lynam, 1996).
p. 425.

Gender Differences: Development of Psychopathy II: CD adolescent-onset
in girls
Date: 1/31/2013
Keywords: CD adolescent-onset in girls, CD child-onset rare in girls,
CD girls early-onset.
Silverton & colleagues (Silverthorn & Frick, 1999; Silverthorn, Frick
& Reynolds) Found that, incontrast to males, childhood-onset CD are
rare among females. However, there is a subgroup of females whose
adolescent-onset CD resemble those exhibited by the early-onset in
that they show similar deficits in impulse control, heightened levels
of CU traits, and diversity in the types of AB in which they engage.
Further more, like boys with early-onset CD, girls more likely are
classified as psychopathic. On this basis, a delayed onset pathway
for CD in girls has been proposed (Silverthorn & Frick, 1999;
Silverthorn et al., 2001).
p. 423.

Gender Differences: Development of Psychopathy III: female child-onset
girls = males & differences
Date: 2/1/2013
Keywords: boy CD/CU predictive of F1; not in women, female child-onset
girls = males, man childhood APD related to F1; not women
The conceptualization – that childhood-onset CD is rare among females,
but those females that exhibit childhood-onset CD are similar to boys
– is bolstered by research examining the relations between CD,
behavioral factors in adult males and females. In a sample of adult
male and female substance abusers, Rutherford, Alterman, Cacciola &
McKay (1998) found no difference between man and women in the
correlation between total PCL-R scores and an APD diagnosis. But,
among men, childhood symptoms of APD were significantly related to F1
scores, whereas this was not the case for women. Thus, in this
sample, childhood criminal involvement, rule breaking, and aggression
seemed more predictive of primary psychopathy among men than among
women.
p. 425.

Gender Differences: Development of Psychopathy IV: male V female
aggressions
Date: 2/1/2013
Keywords: covert forms of aggression, male V female aggressions,
overt forms of aggression, relational aggression, social group
disenfranchising
Many aggressive researchers have argued that males and females differ
more in the quality of their aggressive behavior (i.e., specific forms
engaged in) than in the quantity of their aggressive behavior. For
example, Bjorkqvist and colleagues (Bjorkqvist, Osterman & Kaukianen,
1992; Lagarspetz, Bjorkqvist & Peltonen, 1988) have found that
although men and boys are generally more likely to engage in overt
forms of aggression (e.g., kicking, hitting and punching) than women
and girls, females are more likely than males to utilize covert forms
of aggression involving the manipulation of their social network
(e.g., gossip, refusal of friendship and ostracism). The term
“relational aggression” has been used to refer to these behaviors,
which aim to cause harm by disenfranchising the victim from the social
group (Crick & Gotpeter, 1995), and although relational aggression can
be detected in both males and females, it is more common among females
(Bjorkqvist et al., 1992; Lagerspetz it al., 1988).
P. 425.

Gender Differences: Development of Psychopathy V: relational
aggression – men V Women
Date: 2/1/2013
Keywords: AB in women = relational aggression, borderline personality
disorder (BPD), BPD, BPD-related symptoms, bulimic symptomatology.,
egocentricity, overtly aggressive children, peer rejection, relational
aggression – men V Women, relational aggression in women = AB in women
, stimulus seeking
Evidence that relational aggression in women represents an alternative
manifestation of antisocial traits, Grotpeter and Crick (1996)
reported that relationally aggressive children seem to engage in
highly intimate friendships that involve high levels of jealousy and
exclusivity, and that these children exhibit levels of relational
aggression within this friendships. In contrast, overtly aggressive
children tend to aggress against children outside their friendship
group. Werner and Crick (1999) found that relational aggression in
college women predicted high levels of peer rejection, antisocial
behavior, stimulus seeking, egocentricity, a number of BPD-related
symptoms, bulimic symptomatology. In men, relational aggression
predicted peer rejection and egocentricity only.
p. 425.

Gender Differences: Development of Psychopathy VI: gender temporal
manifestation of AB, psychopathy
Date: 2/2/2013
Keywords: early onset AB behavior & psychopathy in males, gender
temporal manifestation of AB, psychopathy, psychopathy across gender
In summary, preliminary evidence suggests that the AB behaviors
associated with adult psychopathy and APD may differ between men and
women both in their time course and in their specific manifestation
)Rutherford et al., 1998), with important implications for the
assessment of psychopathy across gender. Specifically, whereas early
onset AB behavior is associated with psychopathy in males (Frick &
Marsee, Chapter 18: Psychopathy & Developmental Pathways to AB in
Youth), these behaviors may not emerge until adolescence in females.
When these AB & aggressive behaviors do emerge, they may manifest
differently across gender (e.g., Crick & Grotpeter, 1995). Such
findings provide further impetus for evaluating psychopathy in women
using other behavioral indicators.
p. 425-426.

Hormones & Neurotransmitters I: testosterone & aggression in men
Date: 2/2/2013
Keywords: AB & psychopathy across genders, testosterone & aggression
in men, testosterone levels
Hormonal and neurochemical differences between men and women may be
one important factor contributing to the differential prevalence of AB
personality and psychopathy across genders. Olweus, Mattson,
Schalling and Low (1988), for example, reported significant
correlations between levels of testosterone and provoked aggression in
men.
p. 426.

Hormones & Neurotransmitters II: high levels of androgens rather than
cortisone
Date: 2/2/2013
Keywords: adrenogenital syndrome, androgens & women’s behaviors,
androgens rather than cortisone, congenital adrenal hyperplasia,
cortisone V androgens, recessive gene
In regards to the effects of androgens on women’s behaviors, Benton
(1992) reviewed the literature on characteristics associated with
adrenogenital syndrome (AGS; also known as congenital adrenal
hyperplasia), a condition which results from a recessive gene that
induces the adrenal gland to produce abnormal high levels of androgens
rather than cortisone.
p. 426.

Hormones & Neurotransmitters III: AGS girls V non-AGS girls
Date: 2/3/2013
Keywords: adrenogenital syndrome, AGS girls, androgens & women’s
behaviors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, non-AGS girls, recessive
gene, tomboys
AGS girls [(AGS; also known as congenital adrenal hyperplasia), a
condition which results from a recessive gene that induces the adrenal
gland to produce abnormal high levels of androgens rather than
cortisone.] tend to be “tomboys” and display many male
characteristics, such as increased tough-and-tumble play activity
(Myer-Bahlburg & Ehrhardt, 1982); however they do not display a
tendency toward higher levels of aggression during adulthood compared
to non-AGS girls (Benton, 1992).
p. 426.

Hormones & Neurotransmitters IV: abnormally high levels of androgens
in girls
Date: 2/3/2013
Keywords: androgens high in girls effects limited to childhood,
androgens in girls, environmental mediation of high adrogens in girls

A follow-up study of girls who had been exposed prenatally to
diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic progestogen, revealed no differences
in childhood play behavior or aggressiveness, based on retrospective
self-report on retrospective interposed (“well”) women (List,
Meyer-Bahlburg, Erhardt, Travis & Veridiano, 1992). Thus, abnormally
high levels of androgens in girls appear to be associated with more
male-typical behaviors during childhood, but socialization and
developmental processes may override these effects in the long term.
p. 426.

Hormones & Neurotransmitters IX: lack of hormone/neurotransmitter &
psychopathy in women
Date: 2/4/2013
Keywords: 5-HT = serotonin, gender differences of 5-HT in aggression &
AB, hormone/neurotransmitter & psychopathy in women lacking,
hormone/neurotransmitter levels

The few studies reviewed here provide limited support for the claim
that male hormones are linked to aggression and other forms of AB in
women, and the weight of evidence indicates that there are gender
differences in the role of 5-HT in aggression and AB. Although some
research exists on associations between hormone/neurotransmitter
levels and established measures of psychopathy in men (see Minzenberg
& Silver, Chapter 13: Neurochemistry & Pharmacology of Psychopathy),
no such studies have been conducted with women, & there are no data
comparing men and women in terms of such associations.
p. 427.

Hormones & Neurotransmitters V: serotonin & aggression, alcoholism &
criminality
Date: 2/3/2013
Keywords: blood platelet lower & central nervous system 5-HT,
exhibiting externalizing forms of psychopathology, serotonin &
aggression, alcoholism & criminality, serotonin (5-HT)
neurotransmitter

With regard to neurochemistry, human studies have demonstrated
reliable relationships between dysregulated serotonin (5-HT)
neurotransmitter functioning and aggression, alcoholism and
criminality (see reviews by Roy, Virkunen & Linnoila, 1990; Minzenberg
& Siever, Chapter 13: Neurochemistry & Pharmacology of Psychopathy).
Most of this research has been conducted in men and has demonstrated
that individuals exhibiting externalizing forms of psychopathology
exhibit lower levels of blood platelet and central nervous system
5-HT.
p. 426.

Hormones & Neurotransmitters VI: Serotonin effects in men higher V
women
Date: 2/3/2013
Keywords: 5-HT transporter gene, anger/aggression, negative
affect/neuroticism, Serotonin dysregulation in men V women, Serotonin
effects in men higher V women
Preliminary evidence suggests gender differences in the relationship
between serotonin dysregulation and impulsivity (Soloft, Kelly,
Strotmeyer, Malone & Mann, 2003), negative affect/neuroticism (Du,
Bakish & Hrdina, 2000), and anger/aggression (Manuck et al., 1999).
For example, non-experimental studies have shown that 5-HT functioning
is more robustly related to aggression and impulsivity in men than in
women (Manuck et al., 1999), and a recent lavatory study (Verona,
Joiner, Johnson & Bender, in press) found that the 5-HT transporter
gene was related to increases in stress-induced aggression in men but
not women.
p. 426-427.

Hormones & Neurotransmitters VII: MAOA in men V women
Date: 2/4/2013
Keywords: 5-HT receptor cites, aggressive AB in men, MAOA, monoamine
oxide A (MAOA), mood disorder in women
Recent data indicate that the transporter gene for monoamine oxide A
(MAOA), an enzyme that metabolizes neurotransmitters including 5-HT
and that has been tried to aggressive AB in men (e.g., Samochowiec et
al., 1999), is linked to mood disorder in women but not men (Hauser et
al., 2002).
p. 427.

Hormones & Neurotransmitters VIII: gender differences in AB &
aggression
Date: 2/4/2013
Keywords: 5-HT = serotonin, 5-HT receptor cites, externalizing
psychopathology, gender differences in AB & aggression, internalizing
psychopathology
Gender differences could arise in part from the fact that female sex
hormones, particularly estrogen, increase the density of certain 5-HT
receptor cites and serotonin transporters in the brain (Fink, Summer,
Rosie, Wilson & McQueen, 1999), which in neurotransmission in women as
compared to men. 1-implication of this perspective is that the
effects of sex hormones on serotonergic pathways may partly account
for gender differences in AB and aggression. 2nd-implication: is that
genotypic-risks conferred by serotonin-related alleles may manifest
itself more in terms of externalizing psychopathology (aggression and
AB) in men, and as internalizing psychopathology (depression and
anxiety) in women.
p. 427.

Personality Correlates I: male psychopathy emphasis on constraint &
socialization
Date: 1/16/2013
Keywords: constraint & socialization, male psychopathy, psychopathy &
the personality factors
Theoretical and empirical approaches to male psychopathy have
historically placed great emphasis on the associations between
psychopathy and the personality factors of constraint and
socialization (e.g., Belmore & Quinsey, 1994; Benning, Patrick, Hicks,
Blonigen & Krueger, 2003; Hare, 1978).
p. 420.

Personality Correlates II: constraint & socialization generalize
across gender
Date: 1/16/2013
Keywords: California Psychological Inventory, constraint &
socialization, Constraint scale, incarcerated females, MPQ,
Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), psychopathy & the
personality factors, Socialization scale

Research with incarcerated females has provided evidence that these –
associations between psychopathy and the personality factors of
constraint and socialization in male psychopathy – generalize across
gender. In their sample of incarcerated female offenders, Vitale et
al. (2002) found significant negative correlations between the PCL-R
and scores on both the Socialization scale of the California
Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1969) and the Constraint scale of the
Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen, 1982).
Strachan (1993) demonstrarted a significant association between PCL-R
scores and lower scores on the Socialization scale in a female
offender sample.
p. 420.

Personality Correlates III: PCL-R total scores = MPQ
Date: 1/16/2013
Keywords: Factor 1, Factor 2, high aggressiveness, higher negative
emotionality, low adherence to social norms (Traditionalism), low
social closeness, lower constraint, MPQ, Multidimensional Personality
Questionnaire (MPQ), PCL-R total scores

O’ Conner (2001) reported that PCL-R total scores showed expected
associations with trait scales on the MPQ (Multidimensional
Personality Questionnaire) such as high aggressiveness, low social
closeness, and low adherence to social norms (Traditionalism). Using
partial correlations, he also found that Hare’s (1991) original Factor
1 (F1) was associated with low anxiousness, but, unexpectedly, not
with high dominance. Hare’s original Factor 2 (F2) was associated
with both higher negative emotionality and with lower constraint.
These associations parallel, for the most part , those found among
male prisoners (Patrick, 1994; Verona, Patrick & Joiner, 2001).
pp. 420-421.

Personality Correlates IV: psychopathy in female samples
Date: 1/17/2013
Keywords: callous & unempathic, glib, grandiose, poor perspective
taking, psychopathy in female samples
Studies have shown that psychopathy in female samples is associated
with personality measures selected to reflect the glib, grandiose,
callous and unempathic characteristics emphasized in clinical
descriptions in clinical descriptions of psychopathic individuals.
For example, high PCL-R scores are associated with poor perspective
taking (Rutherford et al., 1996) in women.
p. 421.

Personality Correlates V: SRP-II scores for male & female
undergraduates
Date: 1/17/2013
Keywords: anxiety in male & female undergraduates, lying, narcissism,
social desirability, SRP-II (Self Report Psychopathy) scores
Zagon & Jackson (1994) reported significant relations between SRP-II
(Self Report Psychopathy) scores and measures of narcissism, social
desirability, and lying and significant negative correlations between
SRP-II scores and anxiety in both male and female undergraduates.
However, a negative relation between empathy and SRP-II scores was
significant only for females.
p. 421.

Personality Correlates VI: PCL-R: SV ratings for men & woman
Date: 1/17/2013
Keywords: arrogance, calculation, dominance, love and affection,
PCL-R: SV, PCL-R: SV ratings for men & woman, unassuming & ingenuous
scales in women
Forth et al. (1996) reported that the PCL-R: SV was significantly
positively correlated with self ratings of arrogance and calculation
and dominance and significantly negatively correlated with ratings of
love and affection in both men and women, although PCL-R: SV scores
were significantly negatively correlated with scores on the unassuming
and ingenuous scales only in women.
p. 421.

ersonality Correlates VII: psychopathy and alexithymia in F2 in woman
Date: 1/18/2013
Keywords: Alexithymia = emotion defiit, Alexitymia Scale, F2 related
to alexithymia in woman, psychopathy & alexithymia
On the basis of Cleckley ‘s (1976) hypothesis that psychopathy entails
an underlying deficit in emotion, Louth et al. (1998) examined the
relation between psychopathy and alexithymia [(from Gk. a: not +
themia: speech + -thymia: a combining form used in the formation of
compound words that denote mental disorders) (difficulty in
experiencing, expressing, and describing emotional responses)] in a
sample of female female offenders. They found that the emotion
deficits characteristic of F1 psychopathy were not related to
alexithymia, as measured by the Alexitymia Scale (TAS; Taylor, Ryan &
Bagby, 1985); however, the antisocial and unstable behaviors
comprising F2 were related to alexithymia.
p. 421.

Personality Correlates VIII: psychopathy and alexithymia in F1 in men
Date: 1/18/2013
Keywords: Alexithymia = emotion defiit, psychopathy & alexithymia,
psychopathy & alexithymia in F1 in men
Studies with male offenders, differences in physiological reactivity
to emotional stimuli have more consistently been associated with PCL-R
F1 (e.g., Patrick, Bradley & Lang, 1993; Verona, Patrick, Curtin,
Bradley & Lang, 2004).
p. 421.

Prevalence Rates I!!: females lower baserates
Date: 1/6/2013
Keywords: females lower baserates
There are a number of studies of females of lower baserates. Warren
et al (2003) reported a baserate of 17% in their sample of American
prison inmates, and Salekin et al (1997) reported a baserate of 15% in
a sample from an American jail. Neary (1990) and Loucks (1995) each
reported am 11% baserate, and Vitale, Smith, Brinkley & Newman (2002)
reported a 9% baserate in an American prison sample.
p. 421.

Prevalence Rates I!: prevalence of psychopathy between male and female
Date: 1/6/2013
Keywords: PCL-R 30 cutoff, psychopathy prevalence between male &
female
The prevalence of psychopathy between male and female, the results are
similar but somewhat inconsistent. For example, using a diagnosis
cutoff of 30 on the PCL-R, several Canadian studies of incarcerated
women have reported base-rates well within the range of men (32-31%;
Louth, Hare & Linden, 1998; Strachan, 1993; Tien, Lamb, Bond,
Gillstrom & Paris, 1993).

Prevalence Rates I: APD & CD lower in female samples
Date: 1/5/2013
Keywords: APD & CD lower in female samples
The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and conduct
disorder (CD) is consistently lower in famale samples than in male
samples (e.g., Harting & Widiger, 1998; Rutherford, Alterman, Cacciola
& Snider, 1995).
p. 418.

Prevalence Rates IV: diagnostic efficiency for female psychopahs = 27
PCL-R
Date: 1/7/2013
Keywords: diagnostic efficiency for female psychopahs = 27 PCL-R,
false-alarm rate, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves,
true-positive rate
O’ Conner (2001) reported a baserate of 15.5% using the standard of 30
as the cutoff. However, he also examined the effectiveness of
different PCL-R diagnostic cutoff scores using receiver operating
characteristics (ROC) curves (i.e., plot of true-positive rate
[sensitivity] as a function of the false-alarm rate [one minus
specificity]) and Cleckley’s original ratings as criteria for group
membership. The cutoff that produced the most comparable diagnostic
efficiency between Hare’s (1991) normative male offender sample and
O’Conner’s sample of female prisoners (226) was 27 (sensitivity = .74,
specificity = .90)), which produced a baserate of 24%.
p. 418.

Prevalence Rates Summary
Date: 1/11/2013
Keywords: males tend to score higher than females, rate-based measures
of psychopathy, self-report based measures of psychopathy
Studies using rate-based measures of psychopathy, such as he PCL,
PCL-R and the PCL-SV have reported base-rates for females that clearly
overlap with the range observed in male samples. But, in the majority
of these studies base-rates for females fall at al the lower end of
the range observed for male samples. Studies using self-report based
measures of psychopathy suggest that males tend to score higher on
these measures than females, although this pattern is qualified by the
handful of studies finding no significant gender differences.
p. 418-419.

Prevalence Rates using Self-Report Measures I – SRP-II
Date: 1/10/2013
Keywords: psychopathy males score higher than females, Self-Report
Psychopathy scale II, SRP-II
Studies using the SRP-II (Self-Report Psychopathy scale II) (Hare,
1991) to assess psychopathy have found that males score significantly
higher than females (Lilienfeld & Hess, 2001; Wilson, Frick &
Clements, 1999; Zagon & Jackson, 1994).
p. 418.

Prevalence Rates using Self-Report Measures II – PPI gender scores
Date: 1/10/2013
Keywords: PPI (Psychopathy Self Inventory), PPI male & female scores
equal, PPI male scores higher, Self-Report Measures II – PPI gender
scores
Lilienfeld & Andrews (1996) and Lilienfeld & Hess (2001) observed
significantly higher scores for males relative to females, on the
self-report based PPI (Psychopathy Self Inventory). But, their study
of the PPI in an undergraduate sample, Hamburger et al (1996) found no
significant gender differences in PPI scores.
p. 418.

Prevalence Rates V: PCL-R mean differences for female and male
Date: 1/9/2013
Keywords: PCL-R mean differences – female and males, PL-R mean scores
higher for males versus famales
Even if diagnostic cut scores are not used, differences in the mean
for males and females on a variety of psychopathy measures have been
observed. For example, w/in noninstitutionalized sample of abused or
neglected young adults, Weiler & Widom (1996) found that males had
higher mean PCL-R scores than females.
p. 418.

Prevalence Rates VI: PCL-R mean scores lower for men V females
Date: 1/9/2013
Keywords: noninstitutionalized methadone patients, PCL-R mean scores
lower for men V females, undergraduate males V females
Using the PCL-SV, Forth, Brown, Hart & Hare (1996) reported that the
mean score for undergraduate males was significantly higher than of
undergraduate females. In addition, a comparison of a male sample and
a female sample composed of noninstitutionalized methadone patients
revealed significantly lower mean lower PCL-R scores for the females
(Rutherford, Cacciola, Alterman & and McKay, 1996) than for males
(Alterman, Cacciola & Rutherford, 1993).
p. 418.

Prevalence Rates VII: Null findings in gender PCL-R scores
Date: 1/9/2013
Keywords: Null findings in gender PCL-R scores
There have been null findings in regard to gender differences in PCL-R
scores (Cooney, Kadden & Litt, 1990; Stafford & Cornell, 2003).
p. 418.

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women I!I: Women w/APD
Date: 1/27/2013
Keywords: interpersonal context & family, irresponsible as parents,
prostitution, violent against sex partners & children
Goldstein, Powers, McCusker & Mundt (1996) reported that women
diagnosed with APD were more likely than APD men to be irresponsible
as parents, to engage in prostitution, and to have been physically
violent against sex partners and children. These data emphasize
differences in the context in which the same underlying propensity
(violence & antisocial traits) is manifested in men & women. The
interpersonal context and the family become the major focus of women’s
mental health problems.
p. 423-424.

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women I: BPD V psychopathy
Date: 1/27/2013
Keywords: BPD V psychopathy, impulsivity, lack of empathy,
manipulation, prevent abandonment by a romantic partner,
psychopathic-like traits, violence
In Fatal Attraction, 1987, Glen Close’s character exhibits
psychopathic-like traits, including lack of empathy, manipulation,
impulsivity and violence; however, unlike most men who exhibit such
traits, this female character manifested these traits in an effort to
prevent abandonment by a romantic partner; thus must clinicians would
have diagnosed her as having BPD.
p.423.

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women II: gender:situational
correlates of violent behavior
Date: 1/27/2013
Keywords: gender:situational correlates of violent behavior,
irresponsible as parents, violent propensity in men V women, women
tended to be violent in the home, women tended to be violent toward
family members

Robbins, Monahan and Silver(2003) found that although female and male
psychiatric patients showed comparable rates of violence at
post-institutionalization, there were gender differences in the
situational correlates of the violent behavior. Relative to men, the
women tended to be violent in the home and toward family members,
inflicted significantly less serious injury, and were less often
arrested following their violent behavior.
p. 423.
Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women IV: female expressions of
psychopathy
Date: 1/27/2013
Keywords: bipolar disorder, BPD, female expressions of psychopathy,
histrionic personality disorder (HPD), hysteria, somatization disorder
(SD)
Some psychopathy researchers have advanced the view that certain
disorders that are diagnosed more commonly in women, including BPD,
histrionic personality disorder (HPD), and somatization disorder (SD),
may represent female expressions of psychopathy (Lilienfeld, 1992).
Early on, Cloninger & Guze, (1970a, 1970b) reported that sociopathy in
male family members was common among women diagnosed with hysteria,
and that 40% of diagnosed sociopathic women received an additional
diagnosis of hysteria.
p. 424.

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women IX: Female AB & SD, BPD, HPD
Date: 1/30/2013
Keywords: APD, borderline personality disorder (BPD), BPD, Cluster B
personality disorders, histrionic personality disorder (HPD), HPD, SD,
somatization disorder (SD)
To summarize, the data indicate that there is substantial familial and
interlined overlap between APD, SD and other Cluster B personality
disorders, such as BPD and HPD, in women, potentially indicating
gender differences in manifestations of vulnerability for general AB.
p. 424.

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women V: female hysteria, male
psychopathy & female sociopathy =
Date: 1/27/2013
Keywords: hysteria – female, psychopathy-male, sociopathy-female
Cloninger & Guze (1973) reported that the male relatives of convicted
women were more often diagnosed with sociopathy than the female
relatives (31% V 11% respectively), and hysteria was often diagnosed
among female relatives. Based on the familial clustering of
sociopathy and hysteria, Cloninger, Reich & Guze (1975) successfully
tested a model that suggested that female hysteria, male psychopathy,
and female sociopathy are increasingly severe expressions of the same
vulnerability.
p. 424.

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women VI: hysteria & sociopathy:
genetic associations
Date: 1/27/2013
Keywords: adoption studies, behavioral features of sociopathy,
criminal & aggressive behaviors, hysteria & sociopathy: genetic
associations
Adoption studies by Cadoret (1978) & colleagues (Cadoret, Cunningham,
Lofrus & Edwards, 1978) confirmed the genetic associations between
hysteria and sociopathy. It should be noted that these studies,
“sociopathy” was defined mostly in terms of the behavioral features of
the syndrome, including engaging in criminal & aggressive behaviors.
p. 424.

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women VII: within-person
associations – APD, SD, HPD
Date: 1/29/2013
Keywords: college men: PPI – psychopathy & APD, college women: PPI –
psychopathy & HPD, PPI (Psychopathic Personality Inventory), PPI:
affective-interpersonal & AB
Lilienfeld, Van Valkenburg, Larntz & Akiskal (1986) reported
significant within-person associations between APD, SD (somatization
disorder) and HPD (histrionic personality disorder), and a high prevalence of
APD in the families of patients with SD. In a more recent study that
used PPI (Psychopathic Personality Inventory) to index psychopathy,
Hamburger, Lilienfeld & Hogben (1996) reported that college men showed
a significantly stronger association between PPI psychopathy and APD,
whereas psychopathy was more strongly related to HPD among college
women. This story is notable because there is evidence that the PPI
taps the affective-interpersonal component of psychopathy as well as
the antisocial deviance component (Benning et al., 2003).

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women VIII: Conflicting findings
for SD, psychopathy, HPD
Date: 1/29/2013
Keywords: BPD, Conflicting findings for SD, psychopathy, HPD, female
jail inmates, female psychopathy, PCL-R female assessment, SD,
secondary psychopathy & somatization, secondary psychopathy (akin to
PCL-R F2)
Lilienfeld & Hess (2001) reported that gender moderated the
relationships between secondary psychopathy (akin to PCL-R F2) and
somatization among university students, with women showing a stronger
relationship than men. On the other hand, other work has failed to
replicate these findings (Cale & Lilienfeld, 2002a; Wilson et al.,
1999). Salekin et al. (1997) found that SD was actually negatively
associated with psychopathy, assessed via the PCL-R, in a sample of
female jail inmates. They also reported substantial discriminant
validity for psychopathy and BPD and moderate discriminant validity
for psychopathy and HPD.
p. 424

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women X: Gender not consistent in
psychopathy
Date: 1/30/2013
Keywords: effect sizes small, Gender not consistent in psychopathy,
psychopathy V AB
Gender differences have not consistently been found when using
measures designed to index psychopathy rather than AB deviance, and
where positive findings have been obtained in studies of this kind,
effect sizes have been quite small (Lilienfeld & Hess, 2001)
p. 424.

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women XI: Ways to clarify mixed
findings in women
Date: 1/30/2013
Keywords: college student & nonclinical participants, psychopathology
levels low, self-report measures of psychopathy, Women mixed findings
Most recent work has used self-report measures of psychopathy with
college student and nonclinical participants who, for the most part,
have low levels of psychopathology. Researchers can help clarify
mixed findings by examining relationships between the separate facets
of psychopathy (AB, impulsive, affective and interpersonal) and
various other diagnostic conditions in women (Lilienfeld & Hess,
2001).
p. 424.

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women XII: Ways to clarify mixed
findings in women
Date: 1/30/2013
Keywords: borderline personality disorder (BPD), BPD, F1 negatively
related to SD, F2 positively related to SD, gender-specific : BPD, SD
or HPD, histrionic personality disorder (HPD), HPD, SD, somatization
disorder (SD)
Wilson et al. (1991) and Lilienfeld & Hess (2001) reported that
measures of primary psychopathy (F1) were negatively related to SD,
whereas measures of secondary psychopathy (F2) were positively related
to SD. Thus, BPD, SD or HPD may represent gender-specific
manifestations of underlying risk for externalizing or disinhibitory
problems (however, see Wilson et al., 1999, for negative findings).
p. 424.

Psychopathy Manifestations in Men V Women XIII: differences in AB
devilment in boys & girls
Date: 1/30/2013
Keywords: AB devopment in boys & girls, emotional-interpersonal
features, primary psychopathy
The emotional-interpersonal features relevant to primary psychopathy
may have similar manifestations in men and women. The idea of general
differences in manifestations of general externalizing psychopathy is
supported by the literature on differences in the development of
antisocial and aggressive traits in girls and boys.
p. 424-425,

Validity & Measurement of Female Psychopathy I
Date: 1/4/2013
Keywords: psychopathy gender differences, psychopathy lower base-rates
in female samples
Cale & Lilienfeld (2002b) and Vitale & Newman (2001b) note that ,
despite the relatively lower vase-rates of psychopathy within many
female samples, the reliability and factor structures of psychopathy
measures appear to generalize across gender. But, these reviews
highlight unanswered questions regarding differential symptom
expression of psychopathy across gender, differential item functioning
of psychopathy inventories across gender, and the criterion-related
validity of psychopathy measures, particularly in regard to forensic
criteria and laboratory variables.
p. 417.

Validity & Measurement of Female Psychopathy II: female samples =
lower internal consistency
Date: 1/4/2013
Keywords: PCL-R female interrater scores high, PCL-R femals scores
internal consistency lower V men
Evidence for the utility of the PCL-R with female offenders were 1st
reported in the PCL-R manual (Hare, 1991); this evidence was drawn
primarily from unpublished sources (i.e., Neary, 1990; Strachan,
Williamson & Hare, 1990). Neary (1990) administered the PCL-R to 120
female inmates of a federal prison in Missouri, and found the
interrater reliability for overall PCL-R scores (r = .94) to be
comparable to that for male samples reported by Hare (1991). However,
indices of scale homogeneity (internal consistency) were somewhat
lower in this female offender sample (coefficient alpha = .77, versus
.87 for men; mean inter-item correlation = .14, versus .26 for men).

Validity & Measurement of Female Psychopathy III: PCL-R lower internal
consistency
Date: 1/4/2013
Keywords: PCL-R female interrater scores high, PCL-R femals scores
internal consistency lower V men
Strachan et al. (1990), using a sample of 40 female prison inmate in
BC, reported comparable inerrater reliability for PCL-R scores (r =
.95), but internal consistency figures were lower than those observed
in men (coefficient alpha = .79; mean inter-item correlation = .19).
p. 417.

Validity & Measurement of Female Psychopathy IV: lower PCL-R internal
consistency
Date: 1/5/2013
Keywords: 18 (Juvenile Delinquency), 19 (Revocation of Conditional
Release), PCL-R femals scores internal consistency lower V men
Hare (1991) has suggested that the lower internal consistency of the
PCL-R in these female samples stemmed from problems stemmed from
problems with certain items, particulary with certain items,
particularly items 18 (Juvenile Delinquency) and 19 (Revocation of
Conditional Release), which showed weak correlations with PCL-R total
scores.
p. 417.

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